Human resource management is a separate and specialized function which all managers need to perform.
It is that branch of management which is concerned with the recruitment, selection, development and the best use of employees. Thus, human resource management ensures that every employee makes his maximum contribution to the achievement of organizational goals.
The human resource management that we find today is the result of a number of significant inter-related developments since the era of industrial revolution.
With the emergence of trade union movements, need for a person who could act as an important link between management and workers was strongly felt. Such a role was initially performed by Labor Welfare Officer confined only to the welfare activities of the employees.
With the passage of time, factory system was introduced. Thousands of persons were employed under one roof. The need for employing more and more employees had arisen. And the role for filling and giving people for the organization was given to a person known as ‘Personnel Officer’. His main function was to recruit, select and place the employees.
As time went by, fast changing technological development necessitated new skill development and training to existing and new employees. Human relations approach recognized people as the most valuable source in any organization.
The traditional concept of Labor welfare and Personnel Management had to be replaced with Human Resource Management. Presently, all these aspects recruitment, selection, placement and labor welfare etc. are concern of Human Resource Management.
Keeping the foregoing in view, it can be concluded that human resource management has replaced the traditional concept of Labor Welfare and Personnel Management.
The main functions performed by Human Resource Management are:
1- Determining the number & types of employees required.
2- Recruitment, selection & placement of employees.
3- Providing training to the employees for improving their performance & career growth.
4- Performance appraisals
5- Motivating the employees by providing both financial & non financial incentives.
6- Ensuring social security for employees & handling their grievances.
7- Defending enterprises from legal complications
8- Establishing amicable relations between union & management.
In any enterprise all managerial functions are performed by individuals. No enterprise can function and achieve its objectives in the absence of efficient and competent employees.
Committed, honest, determined and loyal employees are required not only for the growth but also for the survival of organization. Therefore, human resource is considered as the most valuable resource of an enterprise.
After deciding what is to be done and how it is to be done through planning and deciding the organization structure, the human requirement of the organization is assessed.
Staffing function starts with the process of need assessment and goes on to recruit and select people as per the requirement of organization.
Staffing is also considered as a distinct functional area of management just as marketing management and financial management. Further, success of employees depends upon the quality and stability of the jobs for which they are appointed. Ensuring same is an important role played by the human resource department.
Therefore, staffing is referred to as both “a line as well as a staff activity” i.e. an essential function of the management as well as a distinct functional area of management.