Human resource management is a separate and specialized function which all managers need to perform.
It is that branch of management which is concerned with the recruitment, selection, development and the best use of employees. Thus, human resource management ensures that every employee makes his maximum contribution to the achievement of organizational goals.
The human resource management that we find today is the result of a number of significant inter-related developments since the era of industrial revolution.
With the emergence of trade union movements, need for a person who could act as an important link between management and workers was strongly felt. Such a role was initially performed by Labor Welfare Officer confined only to the welfare activities of the employees.
With the passage of time, factory system was introduced. Thousands of persons were employed under one roof. The need for employing more and more employees had arisen. And the role for filling and giving people for the organization was given to a person known as ‘Personnel Officer’. His main function was to recruit, select and place the employees.
As time went by, fast changing technological development necessitated new skill development and training to existing and new employees. Human relations approach recognized people as the most valuable source in any organization.
The traditional concept of Labor welfare and Personnel Management had to be replaced with Human Resource Management. Presently, all these aspects recruitment, selection, placement and labor welfare etc. are concern of Human Resource Management.
Keeping the foregoing in view, it can be concluded that human resource management has replaced the traditional concept of Labor Welfare and Personnel Management.
The main functions performed by Human Resource Management are:
1- Determining the number & types of employees required.
2- Recruitment, selection & placement of employees.
3- Providing training to the employees for improving their performance & career growth.
4- Performance appraisals
5- Motivating the employees by providing both financial & non financial incentives.
6- Ensuring social security for employees & handling their grievances.
7- Defending enterprises from legal complications
8- Establishing amicable relations between union & management.
In any enterprise all managerial functions are performed by individuals. No enterprise can function and achieve its objectives in the absence of efficient and competent employees.
Committed, honest, determined and loyal employees are required not only for the growth but also for the survival of organization. Therefore, human resource is considered as the most valuable resource of an enterprise.
After deciding what is to be done and how it is to be done through planning and deciding the organization structure, the human requirement of the organization is assessed.
Staffing function starts with the process of need assessment and goes on to recruit and select people as per the requirement of organization.
Staffing is also considered as a distinct functional area of management just as marketing management and financial management. Further, success of employees depends upon the quality and stability of the jobs for which they are appointed. Ensuring same is an important role played by the human resource department.
Therefore, staffing is referred to as both “a line as well as a staff activity” i.e. an essential function of the management as well as a distinct functional area of management.
The success of any project is highly influenced by the project team tasked with delivering it. Even the best planned projects may fail to meet their objectives if the project team does not perform to the best of their ability. The effective development and integration of the project team is essential in the successes of a project, as it is the project team who will be responsible for delivery of the scope throughout the project life cycle. The following five steps will lead to a winning project team.
STEP ONE – Establish the Team
The first step is to establish the project management team. The best project teams include stakeholders at all levels, from executives to those individuals at the front line. These individuals have the inside knowledge that will be critical to the success of technical experts from external organizations.
The most important element about team composition is having a team that is effective working together. Collaboration and communication skills are two of the most critical personal skills demanded of all members. The ability and willingness to recognize and value the different roles and contributions of team members is essential. Every team needs problem solving, influence, process and compliance behaviors and values if it is to be successful. People possessing those different requirements for group success have very different behaviors and conflict can be a product of their interactions. Team development at the very start of the project should include training in communication skills, and the recognition and valuing of the different behaviors, values and personal skills needed for team success.
STEP TWO – Facilitate Effective Communication
Accurate, useful, timely and credible communication is crucial to maintaining a cohesive team environment and achieving project success. All project information should be communicated consistently throughout each stage of the process so all team members are equally informed. Open sharing of information should be encouraged and a no surprises attitude must be adopted to create a trusting work environment. A variety of communication mediums should also be used. Team members will respond differently to written (email, text, memo), verbal (telephone, radio, face to face) methods of communication.
Busy schedules and multiple projects can become obstacles to effective communication. Recurrent face to face meetings must be scheduled to encourage ongoing discussions and ensure that deliverables are completed within project time frames.
STEP THREE – Encourage Collaboration
Groups that plan together are typically more successful, therefore project leaders must realize the importance of collaborative planning and goal setting. This collaborative goal setting allows team members to achieve individual successes, while contributing to the overall project goals.
Collaboration is the vehicle which:
Generates the most creative solutions
Gets the greatest membership support
Produces the greatest amount of personal growth
By matching each team member’s incentive to the overall goals, the entire team is motivated further to achieve success. It is also the project manager’s responsibility to manage the team’s development to ensure a cohesive integrated team is founded.
STEP FOUR – Accept and Manage Problems
It should be noted that bringing a group of people together does not necessarily constitute a team, especially not an effective working team. One of the biggest mistakes made by project managers is not recognizing this as a fact and then expecting their project team to hit the ground running from day one.
Project leaders are challenged to facilitate relationships among people of very different backgrounds. However, they all share the common goal of the project. Conflict within projects can manifest itself in many different ways but a good project manager will intercept and take action when conflict occurs. Despite the variables that might contribute to project challenges, by communicating team goals and expectations openly and effectively, these barriers can be overcome.
STEP FIVE – Recognition and Reward
A recognition and reward scheme will help reinforce the importance of the key project deliverables and focus the team on the important aspects of the project. Completion of a project and the steps along the way can be very rewarding for team members. Outwardly celebrating these successes can be very motivating for the team. When project milestones are reached, they should be communicated to the project team members and stakeholders. Rewards can come in various forms. They should be established and communicated at the start of the project, as they may impact on other areas to the project, such as cost and time.
The project management team needs to clearly understand the requirements and deliverables of the project as well as being aware of the organization’s overall strategy, objectives and drivers. It is also essential for the project management team to understand the organization professional and ethical requirements and subscribe to them and ensure that the project complies with them.
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