Industrial Management

The term ‘industrial management’ is more relevant for engineering students, as it primarily focuses on operational aspects of management theories. However, to understand the basics of industrial management, it is desirable that students first understand the basic concept of management, its evolution and also why we must study it. Today’s organizations need to apply management practices to achieve their goals and objectives.


Application of management theories and concepts are now all pervasive and all encompassing. With best engineering skills and knowledge, professionals cannot just sustain since any operational issues require application of management techniques. Any engineer, by profession is also a manager, as engineers also qualify in the classical test of managerial roles of Mintzberg interpersonal role, informational role and decisional role.


In their interpersonal role, engineers need to interact and communicate with the people (both working under and above them) and manage their behavior to get the desired results. Engineers’ informational role is to collect, monitor and disseminate information to keep their workplace updated with the global changes.

And every engineer needs to take decision, now and then, as a part of his job. For all these reasons, the study of industrial management is important for engineers as they are the future managers for the organizations. Often, it is debated that management knowledge is in-built; hence, it requires no formal study of theories and concepts.

We can refute the statement all together. However, engineers gain application-based management knowledge through job experience. These knowledge inputs are very specific to their workplace.

Hence, we cannot call it validated management knowledge. Pre- understanding of the concepts and theories reinforced with the industry practices, make engineers more matured professionals. Hence, every engineer must be exposed to the management education.

Organization is made up of group of people with some specific goals, objectives and activities. Also, organization is defined as relations among components of a system.


Organizational structure denotes the components and relations that bind people working in the organization. Three pillars of organization are people, organization itself and technology. Issues regarding people encompass education, training and attitudes.

Organizational issues cover strategy, policy, culture and bureaucracy. Technological issues are hardware, software, telecommunications and information systems. Three different levels of organizational structure are strategic, tactical and operational. Strategic level represents decision-making level, i.e., the corporate or the top level of an organization.

Tactical or business level is the middle management level, where strategic decisions are transformed into tactics to achieve the strategic intents. Operational level represents the actual implementation level, where the first-level employees and workers execute the tactics adopting the actions plans.

Organizational behavior is the analysis of an organization’s structure and functions and the behavior of its people. Behavioral study encompasses both the group and the individuals. Theoretically, it is difficult to draw a borderline between management and organizational behavior. Rather, it can be said that one supplements the other. A couple of issues regarding organizational behavior have its root in the management process.


In fact, management studies have begun much before the start of the study of organizational behavior. The study of organizational behavior has its beginning from the middle of 12th century. Major focus of organizational behavior studies, therefore, borrow the support from management theories to understand the regulating features of structure, behavior of people and the issues concerning external and internal fit.


A successful managing of organizational behavior largely depends on the management practices prevailing in an organization. Understanding the basics of management, therefore, precedes understanding the organizational behavior. In the first two chapters, we shall discuss on basics and genesis of management to pave the foundation of our knowledge on organizational behavior.


Let us know understand how the concept of management has emerged. Tracing history, we find, before industrial revolution (which occurred in Europe in mid-1700s), people used to manage their own economic activity through home-centered production system.


They themselves were the owners of labor services and of means of capital. Participation being spontaneous (work being their own) and activities being small (confined within the family members), management as a significant human activity did not get recognized then. With the advancement of technology, communication, transportation, market domain had expanded beyond the neighborhood areas.

It was at this time only; the need for more organized production activity in the form of factory-centered production system had emerged. People then started working in groups to accomplish goals.

It was then not possible to achieve goals, working as individuals or individual households. Management then became an inevitable task to bring coordination between the individual efforts in groups.

With the increase in global competition and advancement of technology, the task of managers is becoming more and more important.

An Overview of Exercise Psychology Sport Essay

You have a job interview for the role of an Assistant Physical Activity Promotion officer. Within this role you will be asked to work alongside the GP referral scheme coordinator. As an assessment of your current ability you have been asked to produce a report on your current knowledge regarding the psychological benefits of physical activity. This will be a major decider in their decision of whether to offer you the job.

A description and explanation of exercise psychology and its role in promoting a healthy lifestyle

Exercise psychology is the study of the brain and behavior in physical activity and exercise nature or settings. Also it focuses on human behaviors in different environment. It seeks the psychological benefits of exercise and psychical activity and the importance of exercise for the individual and how to promote lifelong participation

Exercise psychologist’s roles are mainly in research, education and consultancy. In research, they try to find the ways and benefits of exercise in increasing motivation, quality of life and etc. impact the society. In education, they fill an education role by working in educational establishment, athletes and coaches and by producing educational materials on the benefits of the different disciplines within sport and exercise psychology. Consultancy role of exercise psychology involves working with individuals or groups with the view to developing psychological skills that enhance quality of life in some ways. They work in developing suitable exercise programmers, lifestyle management skills and increasing levels of exercise adherence.

The impact that exercise has had on psychological well-being

There are a lot of psychological benefits of exercising for ourselves such as improved moods, reduced stress as well as an improved ability to cope with stress, improved self-esteem, pride in physical accomplishments, increase satisfaction with oneself, improved body image, increased feelings of energy, improved in confidence in your physical abilities. These are some of the benefits and there are a lot more benefits of exercise in term of reducing the risk of developing colon cancer and etc. It also can act as alternative treatments to drug therapy. Not all patients are interested in consuming drugs. Exercise can be the other alternative although most of the time, its time consuming. In some countries, mental health are the main issues and cost a lot of money for the government in term of purchasing medicine. We have to try to reduce the cost and the problem. In UK there are a slight increase in depression and stress from 1993(!5.5%) to in 2007(17.6%)in the proportion of people aged 16-64.

Some of the symptoms of depression include withdrawal, inactivity and feelings of hopelessness and loss of control. Exercise can be a useful intervention tool for depression as research suggested that this problem can be reduces with exercise. Anxiety is defined as a state of worry, apprehension or tension. It occurs many times without real or obvious danger. Research has shown that many people try to solved anxiety with good and bad activities. Alcohol in the mind of some assumes it as a way to solved some of their anxiety problem and most of it, stress and its related also with smoking. Both as we know imposed danger to our health and can be considered as a bad way of tackling the problem. However, many people feel calm after a hard workout. They have forgotten their worries and use exercise as an outlet for their nervous energy. In both cases, exercise can reduce the symptoms of anxiety and depression.

However, there are a few negative affect if not carried out properly. Eating disorder are the more likely of a problem in and individuals who is doing and exercise. As statistic suggested, high percentage of eating disorder are associated with athletes and people doing exercise too much or exercise addicts. Most of them related to eating disorder known as anorexia nervosa. It’s a psychobiological disease characterized by intense fear of becoming obese. Its relates to the social and personal perception of average weight, low self-esteem, the traits of anxiety and being perfectionist

The influence of different factor on encouraging exercise adherence and how this differs for different demographic groups

It has been knowing that they are two types of factors on encouraging exercise adherence which is situation factors and personal factors. Within these factors, there are a lot of factors that we need to address to maximize our exercise adherence.

Situation factors which affect exercise adherence and motivation are time, money, energy, role conflict, social support, exercising with others, facilities, climate and physical discomfort. Personal factors affecting exercise and motivation are awareness of personality, goal setting, imagery and arousal regulation and concentration. These are vital factors to maximize our exercise adherence.

Time management is an important part of everyone’s life. We have to find time in our life to exercise. According to the American College of Sports Medicine(ACSM) guidelines, time to exercise should be between 20-60 minutes, depending on how the individual carried out exercise whether it more than 3-5 times a week or less than 3-5 times a week. It must be situated in a time slot where you will find that exercise will bring enjoyment not the opposite way. Some suggested that it’s better to do a workout after having a day working hard which can have reduced work stress.

Money is not a good reason why not to exercise. Exercise doesn’t mean we have to work out in a gym or doing it in expensive facilities such as treadmill and so on. We can do simple exercise for examples walking, running and jogging in our own neighborhood or recreational parks nearby. Our daily life is all about exercise such as walking to our workplace and many more.

We often hear individual excuses of not exercising are they are too tired or lack of energy to do it. Nutrition plays important part in exercise. With a good consumption of food will increase energy in your body. It also can affect psychologically and physiologically when working out while you are hungry which distract your focus. It is important that prevent from having a meal before your exercise session.

Role conflict refers to time management. It can be related to any commitments such as work commitments, family commitments or any other commitments. As long as it’s not in conflict with it. The main thing is to identify our priorities lie and to make any sacrifice if possible. A good social support is vital for good exercise adherence. To stay in it, you must have the supports of your family and friends. They must understand your commitment to it and will try their best to do something in your interest such as organizing an event which will not contradict with your exercise date. Distraction from them is the least you want.

Some will prefer that exercising with other will improves the atmosphere for example having fun and create positive energy with them, rather than doing it alone which tedium can set in. Exercising in a group exercise class is the best solution for gaining high motivation. when you missed a class, you will have to explain to them why and this will cause fear of embarrassment into you and you will try to avoid it.

The climate in which we exercise is very influential in term of exercise adherence. if the climate is not as we desire whether it’s too hot, too cold, dry or wet, it can cause an affect in your exercising. Try to do it in a climate that suits you or if the climate is not as you desire, try to have a backup plan such doing it in a sport center. We must also know what it takes to exercise which can create physical discomfort and the real meaning of discomfort

To help in your exercise, it helps to reflect on yourself to improve self-confidence for the exercise program such as prior successes, role models, verbal persuasion and emotional arousal. You must remind yourself with your prior successes that is there any challenges that you can’t cope with. Then reflect to other people who have try to do it and have done it. Support is important as I stated earlier and control over emotions for seeing a success as the end result. With goal settings, it enhances your motivation why you are doing it in the first place. To be effective, your goals should be a SMARTER goal which is specific, measurable, accountable, exciting, recorded, time and realistic. For example, if you do it to lose weight, you have to state how much you want to lose weight and by when you want to lose it.

To improve exercise adherence, it’s good to use your imagination. Imagery or visualization can help you seeing the outcomes if you continue exercising. With arousal regulation and concentration as well as imagination, you can prevent an individual feeling bored while doing exercise. Try to change the settings of your exercise and be creative about it.

As I stated above about the factors on encouraging exercise adherence, different groups have different factors to another. For example, young children do exercise because they are told to do so and most of them find it interesting, in adolescent, in their mind is that breaking a sweat or do exercise is uncool in the view of social trends. Again for old people, they will say they exercise to prevent or reduce the risk of having a chronic disease such as heart disease.

Another example would be male and female. As exercise refers to weight management, female tends to exercise for that reason. In the case for male, they do exercise to be fit and for the body image.

An exercise prescription for psychological wellbeing for a particular group

Young adult is most associated with depression or anxiety; exercise can alleviate their symptoms. Exercise programmer must be done step by step to prevent any unwanted factor to present such as injury. In this programmed, they are 5 key of creating it which is skill, social, fitness, competition and enjoyment. Skill is to gain feelings of accomplishment, social is to gain a sense of belonging or feeling affiliated to an organization or group, fitness is to improve strength, shape or stamina, competition is to achieve success either through competition or seeing progress and enjoyment is simply to have fun or pleasure. It also required a community based intervention, school based intervention and parental interventions to encourage young people to maintain an active lifestyle.

In community based interventions, the involvement of young adults in community service can create self-esteem with meeting new people. Doing exercises by the implementation of its community is vital such as walking and cycling in the local parks, encourage walking to school and so on. With male are more involved than women, the community should organize non-competitive activities that appeal this group such as charity fund and etc.

In school based intervention, its logical to implement greater physical activity. The teacher is vital as a role model for this particular group which can motivate them to participate in school activities

Parental intervention is the most important as they are related to each other and they know their children better than anyone. They act as positive role model to their children, personally demonstrating the benefits of an active lifestyle over more sedentary pursuits. They also can encourage their children to participate and they themselves to participate with their children. Parents needs to offer supports and encouragement to their children whatever their doing in exercise. Research has shown that female need more supports and encouragements than their male peers.

Practical examples of how best to prescribe and promote adherence in different groups

For sedentary old people, weekly exercise activities would be organizing for them so that they would feel fresh. Besides that, they need to know the importance of exercise in health term such as reducing acute and chronic diseases. Family support for them is best as they don’t want to do alone, but besides with family.

For a group of people with anger issues, they need to do exercise just like the rest the people that is 3-5times a week for 20-60 minutes such as jogging and walking. in addition, share their views about their anger issues and reflect themselves what creates the issues at the first place.

For a group of young children, regular exercise would help. Parental encouragement and support is important. As their mind are just to have fun, organize a fun activity which can motivate to do exercise more often. Education to them about the benefits of exercise will give them the thought to exercise more often on their own and with f

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Psychology Essay

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), is an anxiety disorder that traps people in endless cycles of repetitive thoughts and behaviors. A person with OCD is plagued with recurring and distressing thoughts and fears that they spend hours distressing over (obsessions) that they cannot control. The anxiety produced from these thoughts lead to urgent need to perform rituals on a continuous basis (compulsions). The compulsive rituals are performed trying to attempt of preventing the obsessive thoughts and make them go away. The ritual might make the anxiety go away for a time, the person then must perform the ritual again when the obsessive thoughts return. Sometimes this cycle can take hours in a person’s day that will interfere with “normal” daily activities. A person most often know their obsessions and compulsions are unrealistic, they cannot stop from doing them.

The purpose of this project is to provide a comprehensive five-part project on obsessive-compulsive disorder. Part I describing the disorder, how it became a psychological disorder. OCD is classified as an anxiety disorder in the DSM-IV and the ways it has been studied. Part II Neurotransmitters that are linked to OCD; then the medications that are prescribed to a person with OCD. Will give information on how genetics contribute to OCD and the part of the brain that is affected. Part III the little known environmental influences that causes a person to be acceptable for OCD. Genetics play more to this disorder than the environment. Part IV Explain the best medical treatment and most effective treatment in helping a person overcome OCD. Then will present a treatment plan for Maria. Part V will explain the best psychological model that best applies in treating OCD and the new treatments that are developed and how Maria can have a productive life without obsessive-compulsive disorder.

Maria who is a 38-year-old woman, who lives in Pittsburgh, married and has four children. She was raised in a strict catholic family and continues to be devoted to her believes. Maria sometimes worries if she is devoted enough and over whether she is performing the rituals perfectly where she began doing rituals that takes up hours and hours of her day. Wit with anxiety she become more obsessed with staying clean and holly where she became more extreme in washing and cleaning, so she will feel clean and pure. Maria personal habits throughout her life include:, keeping her house clean, tidy, and free from clutter, brushing her teeth three or times a day, and wash her hands six to eight times a day, until two years ago she became more obsessed with cleanliness and religious rituals where she spent six to eight hours washing her hands, and cleaning her house that is already cleaned Her relationship with her husband and children are alienated, she refuses to allow them to touch or hug her and insists they wash their hands all the time.

The DSM-IV code for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder is 300.03. OCD is considered as an anxiety disorder. The diagnostic criteria are either obsessions or compulsions. Obsessions are recurring and persistent thoughts, impulses, or images that are intrusive that are not only “excessive” worries. A person with OCD tries or attempts to restrain or not pay attention to these thoughts and recognizes that it is only in their mind. Compulsions on the other hand are repetitive behaviors. Obsessions and repetition are intended for a person with OCD to prevent or reduce their stress or a frightful situation or event. The person recognizes their obsessions or compulsions are excessive and unnecessary and unreasonable. These behaviors take up a person’s time and interfere with a person’s daily normal functions (APA, 2002).

Obsessive thoughts can include:

Persistent fear of harming others or self.

Concern with being contaminated with germs that is unreasonable

Intrusive religious, violent or sexual thoughts.

Need to things perfect and is excessive in doing so.

Compulsions included:

Checking doors, stoves, water faucets, and lights.

Making lists over and over again.

Rearranging or realigning things.

Collecting or hoarding objects that are useless, such as, outdated newspaper, plastic utensils, or food.

Doing actions, a certain amount of time.

Rereading or rewriting unnecessarily

Repeating phrases

Excessive washing that takes up hours of each day.

The things Maria did that are considered typical signs of OCD were spending six to eight hours cleaning her hands so she would feel clean, performing religious rituals that occupied hours of her day, cleaning an already clean house for hours a day, and avoiding coming in contact with her husband and children (case study 1, Kaplan university). Understanding the symptoms and history of OCD is important in determining why Maria had OCD in order to help her. First we will look at the biological reasons then the environmental reasons that would contribute to someone having obsessive-compulsive disorder.


There are several biological aspects of OCD. There are neurotransmitters that are linked to it, genetic contributors to this disorder, and different brain abnormalities that influence this disorder. Neurotransmitters transmit chemical impulses from neurons to neurons. Each neurotransmitter has various functions and different names (Durand, & Barlow, 2007). Serotonin is of the neurotransmitters that influence our behavior. Serotonin is a chemical that takes one messages from one neuron to another (Dryden-Edwards, 2005). When serotonin is too low a person does things they normally would not do and tend to overreact doing impulsive actions. A person with low levels of serotonin are more quick to do abnormal behaviors. Serotonin is not found to cause the problem (Durand, & Barlow, 2007). The brain looks normal in a person who has OCD. It has been found in the brain of a person with OCD, that there is more activity in the frontal lobe of the cerebral cortex, there are increased activity in other parts of the frontal area and the thalamus. A person with OCD is considered to have a “faulty brain circuit,” because of the low levels of serotonin. When the cerebral cortex is under active a person has a hard time controlling their OCD behaviors and actions.

There has been a twin study on monozygotic twins to find if genetic and environment had an effect on OCD. Data was collected on the family structure, health of the family, lifestyle of the family, if there were any complications at the baby’s birth, events that happened in their life, and other environment factors in their life. The results were more twins (both of them) had OCD behaviors later in life if they had parents that were anxious and depressed. This article concludes that genetics played a more role in OCD then the environment. The author suggested that more studies would need to be conducted to determine the exact nature between Genetics and the environment factors of OCD.

Dr. James Kennedy, a neurogeneticist, said “a role in a person developing OCD if they have a relative that is affected with this disorder.” In his article he said that the DNA (5HT1 D Beta) receptor gene is passed to their offspring. Durand, & Barlow state that genes play a role in certain abnormalities, the environmental causes need to be triggered in order to activate a disorder such as OCD (2007). After getting an understanding the research that has been done on the biological aspect of OCD, Researchers researched and noticed a strong correlation that genetics play a big role in a person developing OCD, but no factual evidence. Researchers have investigated and determine that an environmental factor influences a person having OCD. we can turn to what environment plays on someone have this disorder.

In the fourth century OCD was considered to be “melancholia” which is a Greek word that means black bile, if a person’s OCD behaviors lasted a long time. In England in the seventeenth century, religious melancholy was established as part of an OCD disorder and derived from “overzealous devotion to God” (Allison, 2008). In 1907 Freud stated OCD resembled religious rituals. Rituals are done over and over to get rid of guilt. Religion was the universal “obsessional neurosis”. Freud also believed that obsessive-compulsive behaviors are caused by conflicts unconsciously in the mind that manifested in OCD illness. A person struggles between the desire and the actions of their conscious and their unconscious mind. They are urge to complete the actions of their unconscious mind, to get temporary relief from their high intense anxiety. Their conscious mind knows it is ridiculous and bizarre it is to continue to do these actions. In Maria’s mind she felt she wasn’t religious enough, where to get relief from her anxiety she would devote more hours than a “normal” religious person would to perform religious rituals hours each day.

In Maria’s case she grew-up as a strict Catholic, which she continued through her life. She worried that she didn’t measure up to the expectations to be considered pure or holy. This could have been the reason she had great amounts of guilt that caused her to do her religious obsessions and cleaning compulsions. Durand and Barlow (2007) state that in every psychological disorder, both genetics and environment have to be considered. Both are needed to activate OCD. Research supports that genetics play a major role in OCD, but need more research on the environmental factors to support Durand and Barlow theory.

The diathesis -stress model is the best way to explain that situations in the environment along with the biological system will influence OCD behaviors. There are behaviors that are inherited which a person is vulnerable to, which can be activated under stress or an environmental situation (Durand, & Barlow, 2007). As mentioned before, Maria was predisposed to OCD and it was activated from the environment by the petunias at the funeral. Once the genetic and environment influences are understood they can determine the best treatment

In Maria’s case her mom showed strong OCD tendencies with the her many superstitions (genes). Seeing petunias at a funeral (environment) triggered the start of Maria’s obsessive compulsive behaviors. Maria had a genetic vulnerability for OCD; the environment was a factor in the onset of her illness.

Environment factors that came from a horrible divorce or from traumatic events of sexual abuse. Religious factors play an enormous environmental influence that is correlated as a risk factor of having OCD. Researchers found more often the causes of this disorder, is religious factors, the reason for this is a person feel they lack in their faith and feared they haven’t prayed enough or hard enough; their behaviors were sinful; or got contaminated from thought that were impure and sinful. Guilt thrives from these thoughts where they pray over and over again, repeatedly confessing to purge the fear that they are “Doomed to hell”). Maria was apprehensive about her dedication and that she did not measure up to her religious expectations to be considered pure and holy. This could have influence her to have so much guilt which in turn caused her to do have religious obsessions.

February 19, 2009, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved deep brain stimulation (DBS) therapy for those who suffer with OCD and other treatments have failed. To qualify for this procedure a person has to have had at least three SRIs that have failed. This device has been an ongoing study in four Catholic Universities since 1998.

The DBS is surgically implanted in the brain. It delivers electrical impulses to different areas of the fiber bundle in the front of the brain. It is programmed by a clinician and is based on an individual’s needs (Bates, 2009). This device is not exempt from side effects, one that has been know is cerebral hemorrhage and brain infections, non-life threatens have ever been reported. Studies had shown that this device has made great improvement in people’s life and some has even returned back to work.

A study that was conducted were quasi-experiments designs, which is where researchers manipulate the independent variable (the variable they manipulate) while measuring the dependent variable. They observed the relationship between the different medications that were used to treat OCD to see if OCD behavior improved and which psychologically treatment made the most improvement. For example, in the article “Brain Changes Quickly Following Intensive Behavioral Therapy for OCD”, the author concludes there is a strong correlation between the increased brain activity and improvement in OCD symptoms.

Therapy and medications are helpful to help people with obsessive compulsive disorders. One known therapy that works for OCD is behavioral exposure. This works by having the person face objects, situations, places, and thoughts that the person fears and avoids. A person needs to be exposed repeatedly to the “fearful things” in order for it to work. Rituals are prevented by not allowing the person to perform their compulsions.

Medications that seem to work for OCD people are antidepressants, those that are serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs). The six that are commonly used are fluvoxamine, fluoxetine, sertraline (Zoloft), paroxetine, citalopram, and clomipramine. Studies that have been conducted concluded that Anafranil has been the most useful in treating OCD. Serotonin reuptake inhibitors work by slowing the reuptake of serotonin and postponing how it is affects the synapse. This serotonin increase produces changes in the receptors in nerve membranes (Korn,2001). With each of these medications come possible side effects, which do not cause any permanent damage. The most common side effects are sleepiness, dry mouth, and nausea. Anafranil has a few harsher side effects such as, heart racing, difficulty in concentrating, slower thinking ability, and weight gain. Anafranil.

Treatment for OCD

In peer reviewed article, “Cognitive behavior therapy and medications in the treatment of obsessive compulsive disorder,” the researcher’s studied to determine what treatment would best help a person suffering from this disorder. In their research they wanted to determine if cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) would be the best therapy, or Cognitive behavior therapy and medication, or just medication, or just a sugar pill known as a placebo. They concluded that CBT plus medication had the greatest outcomes. It was interesting the study showed no noticeable difference among those that took medication and those that took placebo, but when the person added therapy with the medication they made major improvement. Medications that seemed to work the best were those that are serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRI), Serotonin reuptake inhibitors showed more improvement in their moods to where they could finally work on their OCD behaviors. Combining CBT and medication has been known to be effective in treating OCD. Another therapy that is known to be beneficial and make significant changes in their brain activity after four weeks is an intensive cognitive behavior therapy program. This program consisted of a 90-minute individual therapy session, and four hours of homework five days a week. The PET scans showed changes in normalized regional glucose metabolism and bilateral decreases in normalized thalamic metabolism. The PET scores also showed an increase in a person’s right dorsal anterior cingulated cortex activity along with improvement in their OCD symptoms).

Durand & Barlow  stated that the most common psychosocial treatment that is used to treat a person with OCD is exposure and ritual prevention. This is where a person is exposed to a threaten situations they fear or think are invasive. For example, if a person has a fear that their hands being contaminated, the therapist will encourage the client touch the object they fear and ride it through to the end without washing their hands, such as door knobs.

When it comes to insurance companies or other third party reimbursement such as Medicaid fast outcome are important. They expect therapists to provide written documentation to justify the treatment and expected length of the client’s treatment).

Purposed treatment for Maria

Maria treatment plan would consist of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), medication and family counseling. I think Maria will need spiritual counseling, first because of her religious Catholic background that has put a lot on her; she does not feel she can live up to those expectations where she spends many hours a day performing rituals in order to feel clean and pure. I would start by having her talk to her priest to get an understanding that she is clean, God accepts her, and she does not have to pray hours a day in order to feel accepted and considered clean. I feel spiritual counseling is needed first because if she can feel accepted by God she can begin working on the other OCD behaviors. It would be supportive for Maria to start on some medication to help decrease her anxiety when she begins cognitive behavior therapy.

A plan for therapy would be then to begin with cognitive therapy to change Maria’s old thinking patterns concerning fears of contamination, plus to find different ways to handle stress and change her intense fears (Owens, 2009). The counselor would have Maria touch thing that she fears are contaminated and not be allowed to wash her hand afterwards. She will need to find ways to cope with her anxiety and stress when she has to reframe from washing her hands. Maria would be put on a plan that only lets her brush her teeth a few time’s day and limited to how many times she can clean and straighten her house, eventually she would have to skip a day in cleaning her house. Maria need realize nothing bad will happen if she doesn’t have a clean house. Maria will also be restricted to the total of spiritual rituals she could do. It would be important to still be involved in her faith, but needs to limit the amount the time on spiritual rituals such as praying. The goal would be to change the total number of hours she spends in praying down to five minutes no more than two times a day.

Family therapy would be, not to allow Maria to place huge demands on her children and husband to stay clean by not giving into her by taking a shower when they come home and not washing their hands every time she demands. Maria’s family will have the opportunity to express how they feel and doubt her love because she does not touch or get near them so she understands how her disorder affects them. It would be good to have a doctor explain OCD to her family. I would give Maria assignments each week to help Maria begin to be comfortable touching and hugging her children and husband. How this will be done is after leaning relaxation techniques she will be advised to do the weekly assignments in a relaxed state. On week one she will touch each family member on the shoulder and if it is fearful to do deep breathing techniques, then on weeks to come get her to comfortable hug her children without the need to shower. By going to family therapy will help change the dynamics in Maria’s family.

In conclusion, there has been research done that suggest that genetics is the main factor in developing OCD. More research needs to be conducted on the environmental reasons a person has obsessive compulsive disorder to sustain that the combination of genetic and environmental factors a person ends up having psychological disorders. Through accepting the biological and environmental factors of this disorder, specialists can comprehend the reasons of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder to better provide better therapeutic treatment so that it might be minimized in the future. I fully believe that Maria can change through hard work if she has spiritual and family counseling along with cognitive behavioral therapy and medication to overcome her compulsive behaviors that have taken many years of her life and rejoin her family in a healthy relationship. After, learning what researches believe the best treatment are and discussion a treatment plan I think will help Maria, we will discover the different therapeutic theories and new medication that are being devised. I will determine the final outcome of Maria’s disorder by applying these techniques.

To determine which psychological model that would best help a person with obsessive compulsive disorder it is important to understand the basic concept of each.

Psychoanalysis is a verbal therapy to help a person receive freedom from their emotional pain. This model accepts the view of Freud’s that the unconscious motives are created from some sexual motive.

Cognitive model suggested that our thoughts influences behavior. This therapy was pioneered by Albert Ellis in 1950 and works to get people to change their attitudes. This therapy is known as talk therapy and focuses on thoughts and emotions that lead to behaviors.

Psychodynamics model uses expressive or supportive methods to treat a disorder. Expressive attempts to relieve symptoms through understanding their thought and feelings that possible they might not be aware of. Expressive is that adult’s problems are created in childhood where they don’t have the maturity at that point to make appropriate choices because how they coped to their problems as a child stopped working as an adult. This therapy teaches the person to learn new ways to solve problems to relieve stress and cope in more appropriate ways (Fine, 2007).

Behavior therapy model deals with changing and eliminating behaviors that are troublesome. This therapy was pioneered by Joseph Wolpe which includes assertiveness training, operant conditioning, and desensitization Wolpe reported great success with the stigmatic desensitization for those with phobias.

Humanistic Psychology emphasizes a person to control their mental health. It suggests that environment factors influence a person’s behaviors. It removes the stigma that people think “therapy” is and allows the individual to determine their own care on mental health (Wagner, 2009), it is a person-centered therapy, where the therapist is passive in the clients care and tries to avoid interpretations.

I would choose a combination of the cognitive and behavioral models in order to treat OCD. The rationale for this is research has shown cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) to be the most effective method to the treatment of this disorder. The cognitive model works on the thought processes, and the behavioral model works in changing undesirable behaviors.

The newest medication that has been approved for OCD is Luvox CR in January 2007. Luvox CR is an extended release from of Luvox SSRI. People are paying more attention to this method of having more beneficial outcomes.

Now we know and understand the different treatments and medication in helping a person with OCD, I believe there is a strong possibility that Maria can overcome her OCD behaviors that she has. If Maria wants it and puts her whole heart into her treatment plan, she can have a bright fulfilling future. Once a person is able to get their OCD under control and is able to cope with the environment influences (stressors) in their life they may or may not need to continue medication. A person can be free from the problems of OCD and live a “normal” life. Maria can have this; it will be hard work but worth the price she has to pay to be free of this disorder that has held her hostage for so many years.

Psychology of Fear

Divergent The Psychology of Fear

One of the major themes in Divergent is the concept of fear, its origins, and ways to overcome it. The initiates spend the vast majority of initiation learning ways to act in the face of fearful stimuli, as the Dauntless believe that courage is the key to a successful, prosperous world. But where does fear originate in our minds? Why do we fear the things we fear? And is it actually possible to overcome a fear, or will it remain with you forever? Understanding how fear works is key to understanding the Dauntless faction in general, and gives us a lot of insight into Tris’s thoughts and actions throughout the course of the novel.

It’s hard to pinpoint one area in the brain solely responsible for our feelings of fear, but identified most often is the amygdala. In the presence of threatening stimuli, the amygdala secretes the hormones responsible for fear and aggression – epinephrine, norepinephrine, and cortisol, all of which contribute to a fight or flight response. The amygdala works in collaboration with the hippocampus, which records the fearful event so that we will remember it and avoid it in the future.

But the origin of fear also has roots in fear conditioning. This often occurs when we’re young; if we’re eating, drinking, doing, or experiencing something when an aversive event occurs, we may then associate that thing with whatever happened and develop a fear of it rather than the actual stimulus. Common fears like heights, claustrophobia, and water develop in this way, from experiences associated with traumatic events. We can also adopt fears based on the fear culture and environment around us; while we may fear certain bugs because we don’t come across them that often, other cultures might find them commonplace and unthreatening.

Fear has distinct evolutionary benefits, inciting a variety of physiological responses that are associated with survival. When something scares us, our eyes widen, allowing us to better see the threat. Our hearts begin to beat faster, pumping much-needed blood to the rest of our bodies, and adrenaline prepares for a fight-or-flight response. Most often we are fearful of things that are dangerous to us in some way: spiders, bears, snakes, drowning, guns, heights, which provoke feelings of fear as way of ensuring survival. Phobias develop in order to keep us away from life-threatening conditions. In addition, fear serves a social purpose as well; our fearful responses can alert others that something is wrong, so that they may act accordingly. All of these are beneficial to humans, and are the reasons why fear has endured is ingrained in human behavior.

So why, then, in Divergent, are the Dauntless determined to be fearless? The truth is that they really aren’t. Instead, what Dauntless teaches its members is how to be the master of their own fears, and to act rationally in spite of the terror facing them. Fear cannot be eradicated, but it can be managed. One of the ways to conquer a fear is exposure; by being exposed to the fearful stimulus over and over again, our feelings of terror diminish; we don’t see it as any less of a threat, but after so many times, we’re much better equipped to deal with it and not let it cripple us. This is exactly how the Dauntless fear landscapes work; the more exposed they are to their fears, the better equipped they are to control them.

management in public relations

Leadership and Management in Public Relations Management Essay

“The art and social science of analyzing trends, predicting their consequences, counseling organizational leaders and implementing planned programs of action, which will serve both the organization and the public interest.
Public relations aim primarily to provide a communication between an organization and its users. It is one of the most important business functions as for any organization. It is essential to continually check its reputation in the market that it caters. Moreover, with the present climate of global extensions that majority of the modern day businesses practice, it is essential that the organization keeps touch with what it wants to portray to the consumers so that expectations from the organization is likewise.
Public Relation is used to build rapport with employees, customers, investors, voters or the general public. Almost any organization that indulges itself in being portrayed in the public environment employs some level of public relations.
Public relation is not limited to simply increasing awareness about an organization. It deals with other complex functions of checking and monitoring the reactions of its actions. This illustrates what the organization reflects to its market hence aiding in deciding the next course of action as and when required.
Publicity is one of the major tools for Public relations. Most; if not all, PR campaigns invest heavily for publicity. Publicity involves spreading of information for a product, person, service, cause or organization to gain public awareness. Publicity helps in effective PR planning and is one of the most viral methods adopted by any PR for an organization. In present times, professionals commonly use technology as their main tool to get across their messages to target audiences.
Traditionally, one of the oldest tools used by public relations professionals is a press/media kit. It is usually a collection of promotional materials for the purpose of circulation. These provide information about an event, organization, business, or even a person. Information also includes, fact sheets, press releases (or media releases), media alerts, brochures, newsletters, photographs with captions, copies of any media clips, and social mediums. In recent times, most organizations may have a website with a link which usually updates the message that is required to be communicated for the purpose of communication. Online version of such news is one of the essentials that is adopted in recent times. Other widely-used tools include brochures, newsletters and annual reports.
In the recent times, technological uses of social networks, blogs, and even internet radio public relations professionals facilitate to directly send messages through their respective mediums. Methods are used to find out the reaction of the audience in the current market. Inquiring into the favorable appeals of the target audiences extensively include the use of surveys, conducting research or even focus groups. Various tactics are undertaken to attract target audiences by using the information gathered. This is then directed as a message to them using tools such as social or other popular mediums.
Increasingly, companies are utilizing interactive social networking options, such as media blogs, Twitter and Facebook, as tools in promotion for the PR campaigns. This can be credited to the fact that unlike the traditional tools, social media outlets enable the organization to engage in two-way communication, and receive relatively quicker feedbacks hence efficiently aiding in making accurate decisions.
The above figure illustrates, communication is a reciprocal process of exchanging signals to inform, instruct, or persuade, based on shared meanings and conditioned by the communicators relationship and the social context.
Negative Public relation occurs under circumstances and situation when the message sent across to the public by the organization is seen not coherent to what it portrays. It may be expressed as that process which threatens the reputation and corporate identity of an organization due to improbable actions that leads to unlikely situations and circumstances.
However, this phenomenon can be either intentional or unintentional.
Owing to the nature of this report, the researcher has chosen to consider only the unfavorable public relations for this study and thus Black public relations shall only be mentioned once. Thereafter, steps to deal only with unfavorable public relations shall be included for further part of this work.
Intentional Negative Public Relations
It indicates in context to incidences which are carried about by third party source with intention to tarnish the reputation of a targeted organization, these kind of intentional negative PR strategies are also known as Black Public Relations.

It involves gathering information using high level of industrial espionage and competitive intelligence to uncover the targeted company secrets that are unfavorable to the organizations stakeholders. The only objective of such practices is to strategically disturb the channels and messages of communication between the organization and its shareholders. This kind of negative public relation is an unethical business practice yet it is being widely used against business rivals.
Unintentional Negative PR / Unfavorable Public relations.
This is an occurrence under circumstances when an organization is facing a public challenge to its reputation.
Generally, these challenges may come in the following forms:
An investigation from a government agency.
A criminal allegation.
A media inquiry.
A shareholder’s lawsuit
A violation of environmental regulations
Finally, a violation in a number of other scenarios involving the legal, ethical and / or financial factors.

The above are challenges that an organization faces which may lead to an unfavorable Public relations situation for an organization. However, most of them can be contained almost immediately if handled with urgency. Generally, source of a negative Public relation is born out of mismanaged crises situation in an organization. Crisis communication is of utmost importance to contain any such unlikely circumstances. If efficiently handled, crisis communication can become the best defense against any issue turning into a fully blow catastrophe.

An illustration to explain the above can be found in the case of Johnson & Johnson. In 1982, after cyanide was discovered in some capsules of a J&J product Tylenol, J and J immediately announced a recall of an estimated stock of about a hundred million in circulation in its domestic market of the United States and other foreign market. This decision of Johnson & Johnson, to cooperate fully with the media, earned it lots of praises for its business principle of being socially responsible. The resultant was that the company received additional positive press coverage when it subsequently introduced its new tamper-resistant packaging. Similarly, In March 2005, a woman bit into a finger while eating chili at Wendy’s. Wendy’s responded promptly and shut down that location. This was followed by carefully discarding all the other chili that was dated as the controversial stock. The location was reopened only after a thorough investigation of the rest of the stocks. This crisis could have damaged Wendy’s image, but owing to it responding properly and appropriately, very little damage was observed to their image.
These are two of the few examples which illustrate efficient crisis management procedures despite not being in control the negative PR at the initial stages of the crisis. Johnson & Johnson was able to gain positive publicity for the prompt decision making and was thus able to contain the situation before it went out of proportion.
Conversely, many other organizations have shown lack in managing a crisis situation and have suffered for the same.
Source Perrier is an example of such an organization that was unable to overcome negative publicity when its top management displayed poor crisis-management. Traces of benzene were found in the company’s bottled water in 1990, however the company assured the public that it was only contained to bottles in North America. During the same time, scientists found traces of benzene in its bottled water which was being sold in Europe. This time, the management blamed it upon a contaminated filtering system a reassured that it was being tackled with utmost urgency. Never the less, media had then sampled the brands water from all its prevalent market and discovered that the situation had been persistent for a longer period of time and that the benzene laced product had been selling all around the world. The media questioned Perrier’s integrity and concern for public safety, and the company lost its dominant position in the marketplace; it has been unable to rebuild its reputation.

The available literature on the source of negative PR is not coherently conclusive as different researchers have difference in the scope and width with regard to their view about the causes of unavoidable PR. Attributes two causes. management failure and environmental forces. He categorizes the two into “eight categories of crisis situations which are as follows:

Natural- for example Asian Tsunami which affected everything alike. nations, government, corporations, businesses and so on.
Technological- Mercedes A class had design faults thus had to roll over
Confrontation- Shell Oil wanted to sink an oil platform into the North Sea and thus its petrol stations faced a consumer boycott.
Malevolence-product tampering by private citizens, as in the case of Tylenol capsules of Johnson and Johnson
Skewed Management- Barings Bank went out of business when the bank management was accused of turning a blind eye towards rouge trader.
The organization is watching for warning signs
The organization takes notes of the warning signs and prepares plans proactively to avoid crisis, or reactive one to cope with the crisis if it is come.
Taking Steps to limit the length of the crisis or its affects.
At this step, efforts are made to get back to normal operational conditions or effectiveness of an organization
This is when the Organization reflects and evaluates the experience to consider the negative impacts for the organization and any possible benefits for the future.
This are amongst the school of thoughts that attribute Negative Public relation wholly to mismanaged crisis situation. In the table above, are the five stages of a business crises outlined that explain the steps to be ensured during different stages of a crisis. If attended to, the crisis management should be efficient and thus save the organization any unwanted harm to its reputation

The most important efficient way of dealing with unfavorable public relation can be found in practicing crisis communication. Crisis communication aims at assisting an organization to sustain continuity in the critical business processes. These business processes can be any information flowing during critical situations, natural calamities or event driven circumstances.
The most commonly known five steps that must be ensured in situations threatening the PR of an organization may be best explained as the following
Firstly, the corporation in crisis should be prompt and act accordingly. This can be achieved by addressing the public immediately following the discovery of the situation.
Secondly, the corporation in question must maintain honesty as it is obliged to be completely truthful no matter what the consequences from the public may be.
Thirdly, the corporation should be informative. This would require them to provide facts that are coherent with the situation and restrain speculation under any circumstance. The other reason for this step is to also assure that public does not create its own rumor as rumors might cause more damage to the organization as compared to the already worsened circumstance(Lerbinger 1997).
Next, it is important to be socially concerned and illustrate efforts of improvement to the public. This would reflect on the business as being socially responsible hence improving chances of faster recovery from the damage incurred.
Finally, maintaining two-way relationships. It is very essential as the corporation get response from the public hence increasing the chances of being accepted to do business with. More so, as this kind of communication shall project to the corporation directly about what is expected from them in the near future. These steps are essential in order to manage any crucial PR circumstances.
Quick response is the key to any negative publicity. Efficient and effective crisis communication strategy diagnosed in a premeditated manner can provide most of the solutions to problems relating to negative publicity. In this global and dynamic business world, technology can be effectively harnessed for communicating to the people about a rapid response to the issue. not only can this save the organizational reputation but also it can prevent any unlikely circumstances. Ensuring a coordinated response provides a stronger foundation to tackle tricky situations and in turn can result into a potential advantage to a range of potentially crippling scenarios. A well thought out and executed plan shall reflect strongly upon the management of the origination hence, bringing some more goodwill amongst the users. Timing of responding is a critical factor as the longer the lag, higher the chances of a considerable losses to company revenue and reputation.
“An effective crisis communication strategy will typically consider achieving most of the following objectives:
Maintain connectivity
Be readily accessible to the news media
Show empathy for the people involved
Allow distributed access
Streamline communication processes
Maintain information security

Ensure uninterrupted audit trails
Deliver high volume communications
Support multi-channel communications
Remove dependencies on paper based processes.
Crisis communication can play a significant role by transforming an unexpected situation into a competitive gain. The only essential requirement is respond accordingly and immediately to the urgent situation.
This study is an attempt at understanding the concept of Public relations and investigates into the causes and sources of negative Public relations. In a theoretical context, literature on negative Public relation shows a very distorted view amongst the researchers as it lacks clarity in its core concept of whether is it a result of miss communicated Public message or is it a concept of deliberately damaging an organizations reputation owing to competition rivalry.

However, all of these views are coherent on the thought that quick response to the critical situations can effectively deal with the arising unfavorable circumstances. Efficient and effective crisis communication strategy diagnosed in a premeditated manner can provide most of the solutions to problems relating to negative publicity. Source of a negative Public relation is born out of mismanaged crises situation in an organization. Crisis communication is of utmost importance to contain any such unlikely circumstances. If efficiently handled, crisis communication can become the best defense against any issue arising in the organization.
Ensuring a coordinated response provides a stronger foundation to tackle tricky situations and in turn can result into a potential advantage to a range of potentially crippling scenarios. A well thought out and executed plan shall reflect strongly upon the management of the origination hence, bringing some more goodwill amongst the users. Timing of responding is a critical factor as the longer the lag, higher the chances of a considerable losses to company revenue and reputation.
Public relation also deals with complex functions of checking and monitoring the reactions of its actions as this illustrates what the organization reflects to its market. Thus regular contact with the public over the underlying issues provides better deciding power for the next course of action as and when required.
Technology needs to be exploited the most in critical situations, in this modern day of vast technological choice, communication with the public is easier and cheaper than in the past Thus along with the prior mentioned five steps technological advantages should be used at it optimum to properly manage a crisis can as well as the six types of responses continue to be at the foundation of any crisis public relations.

Educational Psychology

Educational Psychology is a phase of educa­tion. It is a science that supplements the process of education. It is a branch, a segment of education. It describes the behavior of the education and seeks to explain it in terms of his inner urges, motives, drives and the environmental influences to which he is subject.

It is a study of child’s mental life in its various aspects with reference to its application to the education of the child. Educational Psychology provides the teachers and the educators with a fund of knowledge that may help them in giving to the pupils the best kind of education, the education that causes an all-round development of the pupil’s personality.

Educational Psychology studies the problems of education in terms of psychology. In other words, it is a psychological approach to education. But, it does not mean that Educational Psychology is identical with Education, part cannot be identical with the whole. Educational Psychology, though a phase of education, is quite different from it in certain aspects. Education has a wider field, while functions of Educational Psychology are limited.

It is said that Educational Psychology has revolutionized the process of Education. It is true. New education is a complete departure from the old. In the scheme of old education, the child had no place, discipline was very rigid and repressive, curriculum was fixed and formal and the whole of education was drifting away from the life of the child.

New education is not mere acquisition of knowledge and information. It is modification of the child’s behavior and an all-round development of the child’s personality. New education is for the child and apart from child it has no purpose. Thus, in the picture of new education it is the child that figures most. This conception is a gift of Educational Psychology.

Educational Psychology has revealed that all possibility of education lies in the potentialities of the child and his nature. Rousseau said, “Study the child as we do not understand him.” To him, child was a book which had to be studied by every teacher. In this way, as a result of the insight given by Educational Psychology a new child-study- movement has started in the field of education. Introduction of this science to Education has brought about a revolutionary change in the field of Education.

In other words, they say, education has been psychologized. This change has shifted the emphasis from matter to the child. All that is to be taught to the child should be determined by the nature, needs and capacities of the child himself. In the same way, introduction of psychology to education has also changed the conception of discipline. Discipline in the new education should be positive, not negative.

How is Developmental Psychology Beneficial to Society?


The study of changes that occur in human beings throughout their lifespan is referred to as Developmental Psychology. Formally limited to infants and children, it has been widened to cover a wide range of person’s lifespan. This field studies different topics and processes including cognitive development which covers areas like problem solving, moral understanding and conceptual understanding. These processes also include language learning; social development, personality, and emotions. It is with this background that this paper seeks to discuss the benefits of developmental psychology to the society.

The benefits of developmental psychology

There are different opinions pertaining to the benefits of developmental psychology in the society. A few of these opinions would be examined to know the extent to which developmental psychology would benefit the society.

Help in Understanding Human Nature

It is believed that human beings think of life as though complete when they reach early adulthood. But development in humans is a continuous process which start at birth and ends at death. It is argued that a good knowledge of developmental psychology would help to understand this process and keep one abreast with these changes.

Helps in Raising Children

According to some researches, the challenges of rearing and educating children can be better met when one has a good knowledge of developmental psychology. She states that developmental psychologists have discovered of an effective approach towards anger management and control of other negative emotions by parents and caregivers towards children.

Gives People better understanding of themselves

It would be agreed that all human beings start life as babies who grow into adolescences then adults before aging. It is believed that a good knowledge of developmental psychology would give one a better understanding of the processes of development as one grows older. It is argued that with this knowledge, one would be able to differentiate what is normal and what is not, in every stage of life as one grows older which would prepare one for the early detection of developmental problems as one ages.


This essay has shown how developmental psychology would help people in the society. It is believed that a good knowledge of the way humans develop would help one better understand themselves and the people around them. Finally, it would be agreed that from the points made, developmental psychology is beneficial in the society.

Psychology of punishment

Punishment is a term used in operant conditioning to refer to any change that occurs after a behavior that reduces the likelihood that that behavior will occur again in the future. While positive and negative reinforcement s are used to increase behaviors, punishment is focused on reducing or eliminating unwanted behaviors.

Punishment is often mistakenly confused with negative reinforcement. Remember, reinforcement always increases the chances that a behavior will occur and punishment always decreases the chances that a behavior will occur.

Types of Punishment

Behaviorist B. F. Skinner, the psychologist who first described operant conditioning, identified two different kinds of aversive stimuli that can be used as punishment.

Positive Punishment: This type of punishment is also known as “punishment by application.” Positive punishment involves presenting an aversive stimulus after a behavior has occurred. For example, when a student talks out of turn in the middle of class, the teacher might scold the child for interrupting her. ​​

Negative Punishment: This type of punishment is also known as “punishment by removal.” Negative punishment involves taking away a desirable stimulus after a behavior has occurred. For example, when the student from the previous example talks out of turn again, the teacher promptly tells the child that he will have to miss recess because of his behavior.

Is Punishment Effective?

While punishment can be effective in some cases, you can probably think of a few examples of when a punishment does not reduce a behavior. Prison is one example. After being sent to jail for a crime, people often continue committing crimes once they are released from prison.

Why is it that punishment seems to work in some instances, but not in others? Researchers have found a number of factors that contribute to how effective punishment is in different situations. First, punishment is more likely to lead to a reduction in behavior if it immediately follows the behavior. Prison sentences often occur long after the crime has been committed, which may help explain why sending people to jail does not always lead to a reduction in criminal behavior.

Second, punishment achieves greater results when it is consistently applied. It can be difficult to administer a punishment every single time a behavior occurs. For example, people often continue to drive over the speed limit even after receiving a speeding ticket. Why? Because the behavior is inconsistently punished.

Punishment also has some notable drawbacks. First, any behavior changes that result from punishment are often temporary. “Punished behavior is likely to reappear after the punitive consequences are withdrawn,” Skinner explained in his book, “About Behaviorism.”

Perhaps the greatest drawback is the fact that punishment does not actually offer any information about more appropriate or desired behaviors. While subjects might be learning to not perform certain actions, they are not really learning anything about what they should be doing.


Another thing to consider about punishment is that it can have unintended and undesirable consequences. For example, while approximately 75 percent of parents in the United States report spanking their children on occasion, researchers have found that this type of physical punishment may lead to antisocial behavior, aggressiveness, and delinquency among children. For this reason, Skinner and other psychologists suggest that any potential short-term gains from using punishment as a behavior modification tool need to be weighed again the potential long-term consequences

Psychological effect of reward



Appreciation and rewards have noticeable positive psychological effects, particularly in the workplace –78% of employees say recognition motivates them in their job and a combined 68% of respondents. The Rewards Report 2016 said recognition with a reward made them feel valued or motivated at work.

But, can the positive impacts of rewards and appreciation on employees be applied to consumers too? Can their behavior be influenced in the same way?


The science behind kindness has been discussed previously in our blog. Where we found that kindness can positively affect people’s health by reducing anxiety, pain and depression – so what psychological impact do rewards have?

Being rewarded through a loyalty scheme or rewards program is an expression of gratitude from the brand or company to the customer for continuing to use them over another competitor. It also helps to incentivize a customer to continue to use the brand.

Gratitude itself has shown to lessen stress, increase your metabolism, and improve your sleeping habits – all of which can have a positive effect on people’s health and wellbeing. Although consumers may not necessarily associate their improved sleeping pattern with your brand, the experiences they do associate with will be positive as they feel they are getting something in return for their loyalty.

The neurotransmitter dopamine affects the pleasure and reward centers of the brain, and is crucial to affecting the positive experiences a customer has with a brand. Dopamine is often linked with addiction, meaning that once they satisfy those pleasure cravings, they want more.

Sharon Begley comments on dopamine in The New York Times, saying:

“Activity in the dopamine circuit is not so much about pleasure as about expecting pleasure, and when we don’t get it, we feel driven to seek it out, desperately and compulsively.”

That’s not to suggest getting rewards by being a loyal customer is an addiction but, in layman’s terms, if customers get pleasure from what extras brands can offer them, this can improve companies’ customer retention and brand loyalty.


Another scientific way to consider the psychology of rewards would be operant conditioning, a term coined by B.F. Skinner, which looks at how reinforcement changes behavior. Skinner identified three responses following behavior:

Neutral operands: responses from the environment that neither increase nor decrease the probability of a behavior being repeated.

Reinforces: Responses from the environment that increase the probability of a behavior being repeated. Reinforces can be either positive or negative.

Punishers: Responses from the environment that decrease the likelihood of a behavior being repeated. Punishment weakens behavior.

An example of this in a commercial sense, would be if a supermarket rewarded a customer that shopped with them with a discount for signing up to their loyalty scheme.

By signing up to that loyalty scheme and receiving a discount that was relevant to them, the customer has been positively reinforced, or rewarded, and would be likely to repeat the behavior in the hope of receiving more rewards.

The same principles can be applied to bad customer service – if a customer signs up to a loyalty scheme and is misled on what the scheme entails, and as such doesn’t receive any benefits that are relevant to them, then that bad experience means that customer is less likely to be loyal to that supermarket.

The bottom line is, if companies use appreciation and rewards on their own staff and it works, they need to do the same with their customers.


With 56% of consumers claiming they are regularly offered irrelevant rewards or discounts, it’s important to make sure you’re offering the right rewards to your customers. Irrelevant rewards can have a negative effect on your brand, with the same study finding that 27% had left a loyalty programmer because of disconnection with the brand.

“Loyalty comes down to likeability and trust. When focusing on creating long-time customer loyalty, build strong relationships based on trust. That means providing transparency in all you do and continuously working to demonstrate that you have your customers’ best interest in mind.”

Not only do likeability and trust have a big influence on customer’s association with brands, loyalty schemes can counteract negative perceptions of your brand.

A study by researchers at University of Oklahoma and University of Maryland found that customers who are in loyalty programs will overlook or ignore a negative evaluation of the company compared to the competition. Why? Because they are invested in the brand.

An effective way to achieve brand engagement is with instant gratification, which has been fuelled by the advancement of technology, quickening processes that previously took far longer.

You can order clothes for next day delivery, have food delivered to your house within minutes and have a taxi track your location to pick you up – and this means that customers increasingly expect quick solutions to their problems. Therefore, when you’re looking to build long-term relationships with customers, you need to make them feel good – and quickly.

The Role of Marketing Manager

Marketing managers play a huge role in the marketing of the company they work for. There is more to marketing when it comes to being a market manager. The market manager is required to know statistics, do research, keep up with the budget, help with advertising, etc. The responsibilities of the marketing manager require a very strict and detailed plan. Knowing how to strategize according to statistics requires organization, concentration, and a wealth of knowledge. Marketing managers plan according to the target market and customer satisfaction. If a company has increased customer complaints, it is up to the marketing manager to come up with a plan to increase customer satisfaction. This may mean lowering prices, offering sales and services, or the implementation of better training for employees. Keeping customers happy and returning ensures the company will continue to thrive and grow. Without returning customers, a company would begin to see profitability fall.

A number of factors go into marketing strategies including demographical data, type or services or goods offered, price, availability, and even location. Some services require a target market group like young adults or children. These require using strategies that appeal to the desired target market. A marketing strategy designed to appeal to children would be bright, colorful, possibly have happy music, and childlike advertisements.

The marketing manager has a vast amount of responsibilities including measuring the success of the company. Success of a company is measured through a variety of methods. Customer satisfaction and profitability are only a few of the measurements used to determine the success of a company. Marketing managers also have to evaluate the happiness of employees, turnover rate, and work efficiency. If any of the factors are unsatisfactory, it is up to the marketing manager to provide better training to employees and managers. Employee training is part of marketing planning and strategies. Effective and efficient employee help create happier and healthier customer relationships. Marketing managers have many roles, responsibilities, and expectations. They have a very difficult job that requires a collection of data to help increase sales, customer relationships, and employee satisfaction. Budgets have to be set, advertising has to be done according to the target market, and the overall health of the company has to be measured. A good marketing manager will take the time to evaluate the data that is not satisfactory and find a way to fix it.